• Thông dụng

    %%Phong Trào Yêu Nu?c signifies " Patriotic movements". * Resistance war against Nam Hán Dynasty (938) : In 938, from Châu ái (Thanh Hoá), Ngô Quy?n led his army to the North to punish the traitor Ki?u Công Ti?n who would seek reinforcements from Nam Hán Dynasty. In late 938, the king of Nam Hán Dynasty ordered his son Ho?ng Thao to command the navy for an attack on our country while stationing personally the rescue troops in Kwangtung (China). Ngô Quy?n took Ð?i La Citadel, killed Ki?u Công Ti?n and made preparations for the oncoming resistance war. The Nam Hán troops were defeated and Ho?ng Thao was killed in action on B?ch Ð?ng river. The king of Nam Hán Dynasty cancelled marching orders and gave up his aggression intention. The resistance war against Nam Hán brought an end to more than 1,000 years of Chinese domination. * Anti-T?ng resistance wars : After King Ðinh Tiên Hoàng had been murdered, his son was too young (6 years old) when succeeding him. On this occasion, the T?ng Chinese dynasty launched a large-scale aggression on Ð?i C? Vi?t (future Vietnam). Proclaimed king, Lê Hoàn (future Lê Ð?i Hành) hastened to prepare for an anti-T?ng resistance war. In early 981, the T?ng navy and infantry rushed overwhelmingly into Ð?i C? Vi?t. The enemy navy was beaten to pieces on B?ch Ð?ng River. The enemy infantry was stopped short in L?ng Son and strictly pursued. Their commander-in-chief H?u Nhân B?o was killed in action. The T?ng dynasty resigned itself to cancel marching orders. Aware of T?ng Dynasty's aggression intention, Lý Thu?ng Ki?t took the initiative to attack it first for a self-defence. In October 1075, Lý Thu?ng Ki?t commanded the navy to occupy the Khâm Chau, Liêm Chau estuaries and to besiege Ung Châu Citadel while destroying its food warehouses. Then he hastened to come home to set up the defence line on the C?u river for an oncoming resistance war. In late 1075, the T?ng troops rushed into Vietnam with the determination of occupying Thang Long, but after two attacks, were stopped short at the aforesaid defence line and gradually worn out. In addition, the T?ng navy was stopped short at sea. In early 1077, Lý Thu?ng Ki?t switched to a strategic counter-offensive. The T?ng army resigned itself to "make peace", then went home in March 1077. The T?ng dynasty's aggression intention was crushed since. *Anti-Mongol resistance wars (13th century) : In 1258, trying in vain to entice Nhà Tr?n (Tr?n Dynasty) into surrender, the Mongol dynasty ordered its 30,000 soldiers to invade our country. Tr?n Th? Ð?, Tr?n Qu?c Tu?n (Tr?n Hung Ð?o) and our king withdrew out of Thang Long, then all of a sudden made a counter-offensive. The enemy ran back to China in an utterly agitated state. In 1285, the crown prince Thoát Hoan (Togan) led 500,000 soldiers to attack Vietnam. The Tr?n troops withdrew temporarily to make a guerilla war before launching a general counter-offensive. The invaders ran helter skelter, and Thoát Hoan escaped by creeping into a bronze pipe. In 1287, the Mongol dynasty mobilized 500,000 soldiers (strengthened with navy and food supply fleet) for the third invasion on Vietnam. They were defeated again on B?ch Ð?ng River (1288) by the Tr?n troops under the command of Tr?n Qu?c Tu?n (Tr?n Hung Ð?o). * Anti-Ming resistance war : Under the pretext of overthrowing H? Dynasty to restore Nhà Tr?n (Tr?n Dynasty), two hundred thousand Ming aggressors rushed into our country in 1406. To prepare for an anti-aggression war, H? Dynasty had set up a 400-kilometre long defence line from T?n Viên Mountain to Nam Hà (Hà B?c). But the resistance was unsuccessful. On January 20th 1407, the Ming invaders mastered Ða Bang (present-day Hà Tây) - key position on that defence line - and flooded into Thang Long on January 22nd 1407. Consequently, the H? army resigned itself to come back to Thanh Hoá. In June 1407, H? Quý Ly and his trusted courtiers were captured and taken to China. Our country fell again to the foreign domination after nearly five centuries of independence. * Lam Son Insurrection (1418-1428) : In 1406, under the pretext of overthrowing H? Dynasty to restore Nhà Tr?n (Tr?n Dynasty), Ming Dynasty invaded our country. In 1418, in Lam Son forests (Thanh Hoá), Lê L?i (future Lê Thái T?) launched a 10-year insurrection with the wholehearted help of Nguy?n Trãi. Between 1418 and 1423, the guerilla war endured many disadvantages due to the enemy blockade. Between 1423 and 1424, the insurgents made negotiations to keep their strength intact. Between 1424 and 1425, they were on the offensive by liberating Ngh? An, Thanh Hoá, Tân Bình (Qu?ng Bình), Thu?n Hoá. Between 1425 and 1428, they launched the general offensive throughout the country. Resounding victories were T?t Ð?ng-Chúc Ð?ng, Chi Lang-Xuong Giang. On December 16th 1427, at Ðông Quan (Hà N?i), Vuong Thông declared to withdraw his Ming troops. In January 1428, all the Ming invaders left Vietnam. *Anti-Manchurian resistance war (1788-1789) : From the fact Lê Chiêu Th?ng had sought reinforcements from China, the Manchurian dynasty ordered Tôn Si Ngh? and 200,000 soldiers to invade Vietnam. By Ngô Thì Nh?m's plan, the Tây Son troops left B?c Hà to return to Tam Ði?p (Ninh Bình) and Biên Son (Thanh Hoá). Just after receiving this information (Dec.21st 1788), Nguy?n Hu? proclaimed himself emperor Quang Trung and gave marching orders without any delay. Within 35 days , Nguy?n Hu?'s troops took the Gián Kh?u post at 90km from Thang Long. In the night of January 28th 1789, they forced the Hà H?i post (at 20km from Thang Long) to surrender. In the morning of January 30th, the Ng?c H?i, Khuong Thu?ng and Ð?ng Ða posts fell to Nguy?n Hu?. The Manchurian general S?m Nghi Ð?ng committed suicide by hanging himself. The Tây Son army flooded into Thang Long. Tôn Si Ngh? (commander-in-chief of the Manchurian troops) escaped by crossing the pontoon bridge on Sông H?ng (Red River). To avoid the Tây Son army's pursuit, Tôn Si Ngh? ordered to cut the pontoon bridge and an enormous number of invaders drowned. In the afternoon of January 30th 1789, Quang Trung and his main army flooded into Thang Long. The victory over the Manchurian aggressors was one of the most resounding feats of arms in Vietnamese history. * Ba Ðình Insurrection (1886-1887) was commanded by Ph?m Bành and Ðinh Công Tráng against the French. Ba Ðình referred to three temples in three villages Thu?ng Th?, M?u Th?nh, M? Khê. The aggressors suffered many heavy losses due to that solid revolutionary base. After two unsuccessful attacks, the French besieged it so severely that the insurgents moved to Mã Cao (Thanh Hoá) and disintegrated. Ph?m Bành committed suicide and Ðinh Công Tráng was killed. The name Ba Ðình was given to the large square opposite the President H? Chí Minh's Mausoleum. * Bãi S?y Insurrection was commanded by Nguy?n Thi?n Thu?t and Ð?c Tít in response to C?n Vuong Decree. The base was very solid and inaccessible to the enemy. The insurgents applied skilfully the guerilla tactics and inflicted numberless damages to the French between 1885 and 1892. Later, Nguy?n Thi?n Thu?t had to flee in China and Ð?c Tít was exiled to Algeria. *Huong Khê Insurrection was commanded by Phan Ðình Phùng and Cao Th?ng in response to C?n Vuong Decree. Their base located in the Huong Son forests (Hà Tinh). Being able to make the rifles in the latest style, the insurgents achieved the Vu Quang resounding victory. * Thái Nguyên Insurrection referred to the one of Vietnamese soldiers and prisoners under the command of Ð?i C?n (Sergeant Can) and Luong Ng?c Quy?n. After having killed the French commander, the insurgents liberated 203 prisoners and mastered the provincial capital. 623 insurgents (workers, peasants and civil servants included) had to face more than 2,000 French soldiers supported by artillery and navy.

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